History[ edit ] For the past several decades, appraisal theory has developed and evolved as a prominent theory in the field of communication and psychology by testing affect and emotion. Magda Arnold and Richard Lazarus, amongst others who have contributed appraisal theories. The question studied under appraisal theories is why people react to things differently. Even when presented with the same, or a similar situation all people will react in slightly different ways based on their perception of the situation.
History[ edit ] For the past several decades, appraisal theory has developed and evolved as a prominent theory in the field of communication and psychology by testing affect and emotion. Magda Arnold and Richard Lazarus, amongst others who have contributed appraisal theories.
The question studied under appraisal theories is why people react to things differently. Even when presented with the same, or a similar situation all people will react in slightly different ways based on their perception of the situation.
These perceptions elicit various emotions that are specific to each person. About 30 years ago, psychologists and researchers began to categorize these emotions into different groups.
This is where cognitive appraisal theory stems from. They decided to categorize these emotional reaction behaviors as appraisals.
The two main theories of appraisal are the structural model and the process model. Specifically, Arnold wanted to "introduce the idea of emotion differentiation by postulating that emotions such as fearangerand excitement could be distinguished by different excitatory phenomena" Arnold, For example, if a student studies hard all semester in a difficult class and passes the tough mid-term exam with an "A", the felt emotion of happiness will motivate the student to keep studying hard for that class.
Furthermore, the s proved to be difficult as fellow researchers challenged her theory with questions concerning the involvement of psycho physiological factors and the psychological experiences at the Loyola Symposium on Feelings and Emotions. Richard Lazarus[ edit ] Following close to Magda Arnold in terms of appraisal theory examination was Richard Lazarus who continued to research emotions through appraisal theory before his death in Since he began researching in the s, this concept evolves and expands to include new research, methods, and procedures.
Although Arnold had a difficult time with questions, Lazarus and other researchers discussed the biopsychological components of the theory at the Loyola Symposium "Towards a Cognitive Theory of Emotion".
Second, what are the determining antecedent conditions of these cognitions. Moreover, Lazarus specified two major types of appraisal methods which sit at the crux of the appraisal method: You are about to give a speech in front of 50 of your peers. Your mouth goes dry, your heart beat quickens, your palms sweat, and your legs begin to shake and at the same time you experience fear.
Structural model[ edit ] Transactional Model of Stress and Coping of Richard Lazarus The structural model of appraisal helps to explain the relation between appraisals and the emotions they elicit. This model involves examination of the appraisal process as well as examination of how different appraisals influence which emotions are experienced.
According to Lazarus theories of emotion involve a relational aspect, a motivational aspect, and a cognitive aspect Lazarus, The relational aspect involves the relationship between a person and the environment and suggests that emotions always involve an interaction between the two Lazarus, Lazarus suggests that different emotions are elicited when situations are evaluated differently according to these three categories.
In order to evaluate each emotion individually, however, a structural model of appraisal is necessary Lazarus, This model allows for the individual components of the appraisal process to be determined for each emotion.
In addition, this model allows for the evaluation of how and where the appraisal processes differ for different emotions Lazarus, Primary appraisal[ edit ] The appraisal process is broken up into two different categories, primary appraisal and secondary appraisal Lazarus, When evaluating the motivational congruence of a situation, an individual answers the question, "Is this situation congruent or incongruent consistent or inconsistent with my goals?The design process described in this chapter is comprehensive and labor-intensive.
It involves the development of a limited number of integrated curriculum units with accompanying assessments that encompass required district, state, and national standards.
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Appraisal theory is the theory in psychology that emotions are extracted from our evaluations (appraisals or estimates) of events that cause specific reactions in different people.
Essentially, our appraisal of a situation causes an emotional, or affective, response that is going to be based on that appraisal. An example of this is going on a . List of assessment and rubric information. Assessment of student mastery of content takes many forms. This pages includes support materials for assessments that work with the Common Core State Standards and rubrics for many different assessment products.