A surge in agricultural productivity resulted from new methods in crop and field rotation and the introduction of new crops. Economic growth also depended on new forms of manufacturing and new commercial patterns, especially in long-distance trade.
Consolidation and Division in the Islamic Community 1. Muhammad gave no procedure for appointing successor — leader — caliph a. Ali — cousin and son-in-law too young b. Abu Bakr — earliest follower, closest friend 1.
Knew genealogy of tribes — alliances 3. Ridda Wars — defeated Bedouin tribes, brought under power of Islam 2. Initially just raided for booty a. Motives for Arab conquest 1. Unity of faith gave them common cause 2. Pent-up energy from warrior people 3. Weaknesses of the Adversary Empires A.
Sasanian Empire of Persia 1. Autocratic emperor manipulated by aristocrats 2. Zoroastrianism — religion of emperor ignored by common people 3. Delayed too long to realize threat, eventually fled east and were killed B. Byzantine Empire — stronger adversary 1. Muslim invaders got support from Christians from Syria and Egypt a.
Copts and Nestorians would rather be taxed less 3. Muslims triumphed in early battles, would continue siege for centuries VI. Centuries of personal animosities 2. Who would control booty from victories 3. Spark to conflict — murder of third caliph Uthman a. Uthman from Umayyad clan — remember the guys who wanted to assassinate Muham B.
Ali — remember — the son-in-law of Muhammad 1. Makes him look week, he loses some people from his side b. Ali assassinated shortly after 2. Son Husayn tries to regain power, but is abandoned by Iraqis and killed 3.
And now we have a feud C.
Backers of Umayyads vs. Caliph goes through dominant clan vs. The Umayyad Imperium A. Moves East and West 1. Runs into conflict with Buddhism in East 2.
Tried to keep Muslims separate a. Part of military elite, moved to garrison towns b. Mawali — Muslim converts still had to pay taxes a. Some even had to pay jizya — a surtax for nonbelievers — thanks, glad I converted 1.
Oddly enough, not that many people converted…hmmm…I wonder why 2. Muslim lords tolerated other religions…yeayyy taxes IX.
Muhammad stressed importance of marriage, fatherhood — adultery illegal 2.Globalization Notes Essay INTRODUCTION Globalization matters because it affects and impacts a wide range of areas such as politics, economics and technology.
These affected areas in turn have interconnected implications on countries and firms. APWH Exam Topics This site provides in depth responses to the various exam topics. AP World History Resources: grupobittia.com "Here you will find AP World History outlines, vocabulary terms, unit notes, topic notes, study questions, regional outlines, and glossary terms.
Chapter 22 End of Empires and global south to global stage Present 1. CHAPTER THE END OF EMPIRE GLOBAL SOUTH TO GLOBAL STAGE PRESENT AP WORLD HISTORY THE MOST RECENT CENTURY 2.
The Columbian Exchange refers to the increase of global commerce (globalization). Within 50 years of the Spanish arrival in Hispaniola, the Taino natives decreased from 1 million people to people due to diseases brought by the Spanish. Globalization and Resistance Globalization: Causes and Process Globalization increased toward the end of the 20th century, partly due to the entry into world markets of such large nations as China and members of the former Soviet Union.
Only a few countries declined to join the global economy. Globalization is an integration of social, technological, scientific, environmental, economic, and cultural activities of nations that has resulted from increasing international contacts.
On the other hand, fragmentation is the tendency for people to base their loyalty .