Their statement affects all types of material, even if the Library of Congress has not yet created a genre authority record for a particular heading. For ease of narrowing down such a sizable list to just those headings likely of most interest to the piece in hand, I have divided up the master list into broad categories.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Modern literature Even after the arrival of Commodore Matthew C.
Navy fleet in and the gradual opening of the country to the West and its influence, there was at first little noticeable effect on Japanese literature. The long closure of the country and the general sameness of Tokugawa society for decades at a time seemed to have atrophied the imaginations of the gesaku writers.
Even the presence of curiously garbed foreigners, which should have provoked some sort of reaction from authors searching for new material, initially produced little effect.
The gesaku writers were oblivious to the changes in Japanese society, and they continued to grind out minor variants on the same hackneyed themes of the preceding years.
It was only after the removal in of the capital to Edo renamed Tokyo and the declaration by the emperor Meiji that he would seek knowledge from the entire world that the gesaku writers realized their days of influence were numbered. They soon fell under attack from their old enemies, the Confucian denouncers of immoral books, and also from advocates of the new Western learning.
Although the gesaku writers responded with satirical pieces and traditional Japanese fiction deriding the new learning, they were helpless to resist the changes transforming the entire society.
Introduction of Western literature Translations from European languages of nonliterary works began to appear soon after the Meiji Restoration.
The early translations were inaccurate, and the translators unceremoniously deleted any passages that they could not understand readily or that they feared might be unintelligible to Japanese readers.
They also felt obliged to reassure readers that, despite the foreign names of the characters, the emotions they felt were exactly the same as those of a Japanese. It did not take long, however, for the translators to discover that European literature possessed qualities never found in the Japanese writings of the past.
This was due, no doubt, to their reluctance to give up the rich heritage of traditional expression in favour of the unadorned modern tongue. Western influences on poetry Translations of Western poetry led to the creation of new Japanese literary forms.
The translators declared that although European poetry had greater variety than Japanese poetry —some poems are rhymed, others unrhymed, some are extremely long, others abrupt—it was invariably written in the language of ordinary speech.
An insistence on modern language and the availability of many different poetic forms were not the only lessons offered by European poetry. The translators also made the Japanese public aware of how much of human experience had never been treated in the tanka or haiku forms.
Innumerable Western critics have sarcastically commented on the Japanese proclivity for imitating foreign literary models and on their alleged indifference to their own traditions. But far from recklessly abandoning their literary heritage, most writers were at great pains to acquaint themselves with their traditional literature.
National Diet Library In poetry, too, the first products of Western influence were comically inept experiments with rhyme and with such unpromising subjects as the principles of sociology. A decade after the works of English Romantic poets such as Shelley and William Wordsworth had influenced Japanese poetry, the translations made by Ueda Bin of the French Parnassian and Symbolist poets made an even more powerful impression.
If the Japanese poets of the early s had been urged to avoid contamination by foreign ideas, they would have declared that this was contrary to the spirit of an enlightened age.Japanese literature - Modern literature: Even after the arrival of Commodore Matthew C.
Perry’s U.S. Navy fleet in and the gradual opening of the country to the West and its influence, there was at first little noticeable effect on Japanese literature.
The long closure of the country and the general sameness of Tokugawa society for decades at . Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, Compact Edition Plus MyLab Literature -- Access Card Package (6th Edition) 6th Edition. Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more.
Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for. eilean ni chuilleanain essay about myself paper ptsd research bjm tu essay essayalliance essays about beta club emblem middlebury supplement essay role of individual.
BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. LCSH topical headings usable as form/genre headings. The Library of Congress has begun issuing authority records for form & genre headings, but at the current rate, it will likely be several years before they finish with a first pass through all of the major categories of headings.