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In antiquity[ edit ] In the Western philosophical tradition, Aristotle is often situated as the first commentator on the nature of metaphor, writing in the Poetics"A 'metaphorical term' involves the transferred use of a term that properly belongs to something else,"  and elsewhere in the Rhetoric he says that metaphors make learning pleasant; "To learn easily is naturally pleasant to all people, and words signify something, so whatever words create knowledge in us are the pleasantest.
This has been sometimes called the "Traditional View of Metaphor"  and at other times the "Classical Theory of Metaphor". In his work Institutio OratoriaQuintilian states," In totum autem metaphora brevior est similitudo" or "on the whole, metaphor is a shorter form of simile".
Janet SoskiceProfessor of Philosophical Theology at the University of Cambridgewrites in summary that "it is certain that we shall taste the freshness of their insights only if we free them from the obligation to answer questions that were never theirs to ask". A mapping is the systematic set of correspondences that exist between constituent elements of the source and the target domain.
Many elements of target concepts come from source domains and are not preexisting. To know a conceptual metaphor is to know the set of mappings that applies to a given source-target pairing.
The same idea of mapping between source and target is used to describe analogical reasoning and inferences. The metaphor may seem to consist of words or other linguistic expressions that come from the terminology of the more concrete conceptual domain, but conceptual metaphors underlie a system of related metaphorical expressions that appear on the linguistic surface.
Similarly, the mappings of a conceptual metaphor are themselves motivated by image schemas which are critical reading and writing andrew goatly pdf schemas concerning space, time, moving, controlling, and other core elements of embodied human experience. Conceptual metaphors typically employ a more abstract concept as target and a more concrete or physical concept as their source.
For instance, metaphors such as 'the days [the more abstract or target concept] ahead' or 'giving my time' rely on more concrete concepts, thus expressing time as a path into physical space, or as a substance that can be handled and offered as a gift.
Different conceptual metaphors tend to be invoked when the speaker is trying to make a case for a certain point of view or course of action. For instance, one might associate "the days ahead" with leadership, whereas the phrase "giving my time" carries stronger connotations of bargaining.
Selection of such metaphors tends to be directed by a subconscious or implicit habit in the mind of the person employing them.
The principle of unidirectionality states that the metaphorical process typically goes from the more concrete to the more abstract, and not the other way around. Accordingly, abstract concepts are understood in terms of prototype concrete processes. The term "concrete," in this theory, has been further specified by Lakoff and Johnson as more closely related to the developmental, physical neural, and interactive body see embodied philosophy.
One manifestation of this view is found in the cognitive science of mathematicswhere it is proposed that mathematics itself, the most widely accepted means of abstraction in the human community, is largely metaphorically constructed, and thereby reflects a cognitive bias unique to humans that uses embodied prototypical processes e.
Conduit metaphor[ edit ] The conduit metaphor is a dominant class of figurative expressions used when discussing communication itself metalanguage.
It operates whenever people speak or write as if they "insert" their mental contents feelings, meanings, thoughts, concepts, etc. Thus, language is viewed as a "conduit" conveying mental content between people. Defined and described by linguist Michael J. Reddy, PhD, his proposal of this conceptual metaphor refocused debate within and outside the linguistic community on the importance of metaphorical language.
There are numerous ways in which conceptual metaphors shape human perception and communication, especially in mass media and in public policy. Lakoff and Johnson focus on English, and cognitive scholars writing in English have tended not to investigate the discourse of foreign languages in any great detail to determine the creative ways in which individuals negotiate, resist, and consolidate conceptual metaphors.
Andrew Goatly in his book Washing the Brain  considers ideological conceptual metaphors as well as Chinese conceptual metaphors.
Underhill, a modern Humboldtian scholar, attempts to reestablish Wilhelm von Humboldt 's concern for the different ways languages frame reality, and the strategies individuals adopt in creatively resisting and modifying existing patterns of thought. Taking on board the Lakoff-Johnson paradigm of conceptual metaphor, he investigates the way in which Czech communists appropriated the concept of the people, the state and struggle, and the way German Communists harnessed concepts of eternity and purity.
He also reminds us that, as Klemperer, the main critic of Hitlerdeutsch, demonstrates, resisting patterns of thought means engaging in conceptual metaphors and refusing the logic that ideologies impose upon them.
Lakoff claims that the public political arena in America reflects a basic conceptual metaphor of ' the family. Two basic views of political economy arise from this desire to see the nation-state act 'more like a father' or 'more like a mother.
Urban theorist and ethicist Jane Jacobs made this distinction in less gender-driven if not wholly desexualizing terms by differentiating between a 'Guardian Ethic' and a 'Trader Ethic'.Critical Reading and Writing (eBook) Peter Andrew Goatly, Preet Hiradhar Adobe DRM PDF.
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5c CRITICAL THINKING, READING, AND WRITING 5c What is the reading process? Reading is an active process—a dynamic, meaning-making interaction between the page and your brain.
Understanding the reading process helps people become critical thinkers. Critical Reading and Writing: An Introductory Coursebook by Goatly, Peter Andrew & Hui, Diane. Routledge.
Paperback. Used; Good. 02/17/ Van Schaik Bookstore is proud to announce that our Botswana store is now situated on the campus of the University of Botswana, Gaborone.
The relocation from Fairground Malls took place early August, just in time for the University’s 1st semester. A metaphor is a figure of speech that, for rhetorical effect, directly refers to one thing by mentioning another. It may provide clarity or identify hidden similarities between two ideas.
Antithesis, hyperbole, metonymy and simile are all types of metaphor. One of the most commonly cited examples of a metaphor in English literature is the "All the world's a stage" monologue from As You Like It.
GOATLY Andrew Peter Honorary Professor. (Metaphor at Lingnan University Department of English), Critical Reading and Writing, Routledge, Course EZS Unit 22 Metaphor. The Open University, Singapore, Course EZS Unit 27 Texts as Carriers of Values.
The Open University, Singapore.