Who Are The Constitution Authors and Signers Share The signers of the Constitution are considered to be a collection of the greatest political and philosophical minds in the United States.
Brief Overview The Articles of Confederation After declaring independence from Britain inthe delegates at the Second Continental Congress immediately set to the task of creating a government. Because most state currencies had become useless due to wartime inflation, Congress printed its own continental dollars to keep the economy alive, but these faltered as well.
Congress also proved unable to raise enough money from the states, because the federal government had no way of forcing the states to pay taxes.
In addition, many Americans became fed up with their incompetent state legislatures and demanded debt relief and cheaper money. Although the rebellion was quickly dismissed, it convinced many American leaders that change was needed if the U.
Drafting the Constitution To resolve these problems, delegates from most of the states met at the Annapolis Convention in When nothing was resolved, they agreed to reconvene in at a Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.
At this second convention, it was quickly decided that an entirely new constitution was needed rather than just a revision to the Articles.
A major point of contention was the structure of the new legislative branch. Small states supported the New Jersey Plan, under which all states would have equal representation in the legislature. Large states advocated the Virginia Plan to create a bicameral two-house legislature in which representatives would be appointed according to population.
The Great Compromise among the states created a bicameral Congress in which states would be equally represented in the Senate and proportionally represented in the House of Representatives.
The framers of the Constitution believed strongly in checks and balances and separation of powers to prevent any one branch of government from ever becoming too powerful.
As a result, the new government would also have a strong executive branch and an independent judiciary branch. The Federalist Papers and the Bill of Rights When the delegates submitted the Constitution to the states for ratification, heated debates erupted between the Federalists, who supported the Constitution, and the Anti-Federalists, who thought it gave the federal government too much power.
Eventually, the Anti-Federalists conceded on the condition that a Bill of Rights be written to preserve liberties, such as freedoms of speech and religion and the right to trial by jury. Soon after, the new secretary of the treasury, Alexander Hamilton, wanted to repair the national credit and revive the economy by having the federal government assume all the debts of the individual states.
He also wanted to establish a national Bank of the United States. The Constitution said nothing about a national bank, but Hamilton believed that the Constitution allowed many unwritten actions that it did not expressly forbid.
Thomas Jefferson, the secretary of state and a strict constructionist, believed that the Constitution forbade everything it did not allow.
Domestic Unrest in the s Despite the passage of the Indian Intercourse Acts, beginning inNative Americans frequently raided American settlements west of the Appalachians until federal troops crushed several tribes in the Battle of Fallen Timbers in Later, when farmers in western Pennsylvania threatened to march on Philadelphia to protest the excise tax on liquor inWashington dispatched 13, federal troops to crush the insurgents.
The Whiskey Rebellion, however, ended without bloodshed. However, under the Franco-American alliance ofthe United States was obligated to assist France. Unprepared for another war, Washington issued the Neutrality Proclamation of Finally, in his famous Farewell Address inWashington warned against entangling alliances with European powers and potential political factions in the United States.
When Adams sent an ambassador to Paris to restore Franco-American relations, three French officials demanded a bribe before they would speak with him. This incident, the XYZ Affair, shocked Americans and initiated two years of undeclared naval warfare.
To prevent unwanted French immigrants from entering the country, Adams and a sympathetic Congress passed the Alien Acts in They also passed the Sedition Act, which banned public criticism of the government in an attempt to stifle political opposition and wipe out the Democratic-Republicans.
They argued that because the states had created the Union, they also had the right to nullify any unconstitutional legislation. Despite years of mutual hatred, the Federalists relinquished the government to their political enemies in a peaceful transfer of power.
Thomas Jefferson, champion of western and southern farmers, became president and immediately advocated a reduction in the size and power of the federal government.
The Supreme Court reasserted its power of judicial review in the Marbury v. The Embargo Act Jefferson continued to face challenges from Europe, as neither Britain nor France respected American shipping rights as a neutral country.
Both countries seized hundreds of American merchant ships bound for Europe, and British warships impressed captured for forced labor thousands of American sailors. Unfortunately, the boycott backfired, and the U.
Since the British were still seizing American ships and impressing American sailors, Congress declared war on Britain in The War of was primarily a sectional conflict supported by Americans in the West and South and condemned by those in the Northeast. Indelegates from the New England states met at the Hartford Convention to petition Congress and redress grievances.
By the time Congress received their complaint, however, the war had ended and the Treaty of Ghent had been signed.3. The Constitution became the law of the land in _____. 4. The United States expanded to the Pacific Ocean by _____. 5. President Lincoln freed the slaves in _____. 6. The First World War ended in _____.
7. The Great Depression began in _____. 8. The United States entered the Second World War in _____. 9. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme law of the United States.
Empowered with the sovereign authority of the people by the framers and the consent of the legislatures of. Teacher Guide: Writing the Constitution ii PrePAring For the oAth U.S.
HISTORY AND CIVICS FOR CITIZENSHIP overview This Teacher Guide will take you through the Civics Test questions covered in the theme, Writing the Constitution. The instructional steps provided here target ESL students at . A Free and Online, Collaboratively Built American History Textbook.
Who Wrote the Constitution: Constitution Basics The Constitution of the United States is considered to be the foremost piece of legislature with regard to the implementation and authorization of legality and lawfulness within the United States.
The United States Constitution was written in during the Philadelphia Convention. The old Congress set the rules the new government followed in terms of writing and ratifying the new constitution.