The predictions yielded a full range of results, to include stability in infection rate and even a descent in cases in some regions. Nonetheless, a strongly defined situation shows potential societal disaster in other regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa.
Historical prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes The earliest known cases of human HIV infection have been linked to western equatorial Africa, probably in southeast Cameroon where groups of the central common chimpanzee live.
The hunters then became infected with HIV and passed on the disease to other humans through bodily fluid contamination. This theory is known as the "Bushmeat theory".
One of the most formative explanations is the poverty that dramatically impacts the daily lives of Africans. A Challenge to Our Thinking, describes how "Poverty has accompanying side-effects, such as prostitution i.
Trade along the rivers could have spread the virus, which built up slowly in the human population. By the s, about 2, people in Africa may have had HIV,  including people in Kinshasa whose tissue samples from and have been preserved and studied retrospectively.
The virus multiplies in the body until it causes immune system damage, leading to diseases of the AIDS syndrome.
In the s it spread silently across the globe until it became a pandemic, or widespread. Some areas of the world were already significantly impacted by AIDS, while in others the epidemic was just beginning.
The virus is transmitted by bodily fluid contact including the exchange of sexual fluids, by blood, from mother to child in the womb, and during delivery or breastfeeding. Then in andheterosexual Africans also were diagnosed. Because public health authorities perceived AIDS to be an urban phenomenon associated with prostitution, they believed that the majority of Africans who lived in "traditional" rural areas would be spared.
They believed that the heterosexual epidemic could be contained by focusing prevention efforts on persuading the so-called core transmitters—people such as sex workers and truck drivers, known to have multiple sex partners—to use condoms.
These factors retarded prevention campaigns in many countries for more than a decade. AIDS was at first considered a disease of gay men and drug addicts, but in Africa it took off among the general population.
As a result, those involved in the fight against HIV began to emphasize aspects such as preventing transmission from mother to child, or the relationship between HIV and poverty, inequality of the sexes, and so on, rather than emphasizing the need to prevent transmission by unsafe sexual practices or drug injection.
This change in emphasis resulted in more funding, but was not effective in preventing a drastic rise in HIV prevalence. Almost 1 million of those patients were treated in Public education initiatives[ edit ] Numerous public education initiatives have been launched to curb the spread of HIV in Africa.
This is due to many factors such as a lack of understanding of the disease, lack of access to treatment, the media, knowing that AIDS is incurable, and prejudices brought on by a cultures beliefs. The belief that only homosexuals could contract the diseases was later debunked as the number of heterosexual couples living with HIV increased.
Unfortunately there were other rumors being spread by elders in Cameroon. They also claimed if a man was infected as a result of having sexual contact with a Fulani woman, only a Fulani healer could treat him". Because of this belief that men can only get HIV from women many "women are not free to speak of their HIV status to their partners for fear of violence".
Unfortunately This stigma makes it very challenging for Sub-Saharan Africans to share that they have HIV because they are afraid of being an outcast from their friends and family.
The common belief is that once you have HIV you are destined to die. People seclude themselves based on these beliefs. This group of individuals under fear of suspicion may avoid being mistakingly identified as stigmatized by simply avoiding HARHS utilization.
Using different prevention strategies in combination is not a new idea. Combination prevention reflects common sense, yet it is striking how seldom the approach has been put into practice.
Prevention efforts to date have overwhelmingly focused on reducing individual risk, with fewer efforts made to address societal factors that increase vulnerability to HIV. Most new infections were coming from people in long-term relationships who had multiple sexual partners. The implementation of ABC differs among those who use it.
People who had talked to the counselors were twice as likely to mention abstinence and three times as likely to mention condom use when asked to describe ways to avoid infection.
However, they were no more likely than the uncounseled to mention being faithful as a good strategy. The people who had been counseled were also twice as likely to have been tested for HIV in the previous year, and to have discussed that possibility with a sex partner.
However, they were just as likely to have a partner outside marriage as the people who had not gotten a visit from a counselor, and they were no more likely to be using a condom in those liaisons.tions on HIV/AIDS, from to , are directly related to Africa.
Effective responses to the epidemic require a multisectoral approach, including governments, the business sector and civil society. HIV/AIDS in Brazil and South Africa.
Sub-Saharan Africa is the region of the world that is most affected by HIV/AIDS. The United Nations reports that an estimated million people are living with HIV and that approximately million new infections occurred in Journal description. AIDS Analysis Africa Online (AAAO) is a bi-monthly electronic newsletter focusing on the wide-ranging impact of HIV and AIDS on Africa. This paper reports an analysis of the effects of health care interventions designed to reduce the impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on the Botswana economy. The analyses were conducted using a recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model for Botswana within which was embedded a compartmental epidemiological model.
In , Brazil had the second highest number of reported AIDS cases in the world, second only to the USA (Jornal do Brasil ).Today, Brazil is widely recognised as a model for its public policy response to AIDS.
Hiv/Aids in Africa Essay Words | 4 Pages.
Sub-Saharan Africa is the region of the world that is most affected by HIV/AIDS. The United Nations reports that an estimated million people are living with HIV and that approximately million new infections occurred in Journal description.
AIDS Analysis Africa Online (AAAO) is a bi-monthly electronic newsletter focusing on the wide-ranging impact of HIV and AIDS on Africa. The deadly synergistic combination of tuberculosis and HIV intensifies the epidemic of HIV/AIDS within sub-Saharan Africa.
Tuberculosis is the world’s greatest infectious killer of women of reproductive age, and it is the leading .
The macroeconomic effects of HIV/AIDS in Africa are substantial, and policies for dealing with them may be controversial - one is whether expensive antiretroviral drugs should be targeted at.