Conclusion As private interests have come to wield more influence over public policy, with ever larger sums of money shaping elections and the policymaking process, our political system has become less responsive to those looking for a fair shot to improve their lives and move upward. Recent developments have aggravated this long emerging trend. In particular, the Citizens United ruling and the rise of Super PACs have expanded the ability of wealthy individuals and corporations to shape election outcomes and set the policy agenda in Washington and state capitals across the country. These inequities in political power would still be unfair, but might not matter as much, if the interests of the affluent and corporations were closely aligned with those of the general public.
Current land policy issues in Ethiopia - B. The data show that access to land has considerable influence on household income and food security, to the extent that small farm sizes appear to be one of the major constraints for farm development and intensification efforts.
Farmers placed more emphasis on tenure security rather than on type of ownership per se.
Ways must be sought to provide better tenure security of land holdings. Given the growing population pressure, increasing number of landless households and limited access to land, encouraging the development of the nonagricultural employment sector is crucial. This partly explains why land-related issues usually generate intense emotional reactions.
Obviously, for rural residents of most developing countries, land is the primary means of production used to generate a livelihood for a family. It is also the main asset that farmers have to accumulate wealth and, equally importantly, is what they can transfer in the form of wealth to future generations.
Accordingly, land policy in developing countries is a crucial, albeit sensitive, part of the overall development policy that governments need to consider if rapid economic growth and poverty alleviation are to be achieved. Although there is wide recognition regarding the importance of land policy in agrarian development, there is no clear and universally applicable blueprint as to A study of income generation policies an appropriate land policy should be.
This is partly because the efficacy of land policy in encouraging agricultural development depends on sociocultural and geographical variables that significantly differ from country to country. In a number of cases, even within one country, various types of landholding system exist depending upon historical factors and the farming systems that have prevailed in the different regions.
Despite these differences, however, using established theories, behavioral assumptions regarding economic agents and on experience from other countries, researchers have tried to define certain basic principles and thereby achieve a land policy that will generate higher levels of productivity in agriculture while also maintaining considerations of equity.
However, even these principles will change with time as more information is gathered from other countries. If we take the World Bank land policy paper as a starting point, three basic principles should be considered in informing any land policy.
At that time, the World Bank believed that a owneroperated family farms were efficient and thus desirable, b there should be freely operating land markets to permit land transfers to more efficient and productive users and c there was a need for a more equitable distribution of assets Deininger and Binswanger, These principles are still considered to be largely valid.
However, based on experience from various countries that have subsequently implemented land reforms, a number of amendments were made to this position including: Although the benefits of formal land markets have been recognized, its full potential can be secured only if other factor markets are equally and effectively operational in rural areas.
Recent research has also recognized the importance of decentralized administration of land-related issues. What is significant in these findings is that whereas there are certain agreed objectives such as efficiency and equity and principles security of tenure that should inform land policy, the modalities of a landholding system in a specific country could and should take in to account the specific conditions prevailing in that country in order to achieve the stated objectives of providing a decent living to the farming population.
One development in the last few decades that has been recognized is the degree to which the importance of overtly ideological considerations have been relegated to the background in land policy debates.
This should certainly help in allowing a more reasoned discussion about appropriate land tenure arrangements that take into account the specific circumstances of each country; in addition this will reduce any politicization of the issues thereby overly complicating the search for a viable solution.
Accordingly, with ideology consigned to the background, many countries are now boldly addressing the issue of land reforms. In the last two decades, most countries in sub-Saharan Africa have been variously undertaking land reform in one way or another.
The aims of most of these reforms have been to promote productivity in agriculture and thereby generate rapid economic growth, encourage a more sustainable management and reduce poverty.
In relation to reducing rural poverty, access to land is recognized in most of these reforms as of special significance in the absence of alternative employment opportunities in the non-agricultural sectors of the economy Toulmin and Quan, The reasons behind the lack of government interest in alternative tenure regimes are not that the current policy essentially serves the interest of agricultural development better than its alternatives.
Neither is it because there are no critics who argue that the existing land tenure system in the country falls significantly short of satisfying some of the basic principles of land tenure outlined above. In terms of the performance of the agricultural sector since the reform, it is well known that the sector has been performing badly.
The entire sector grew at an average of 2 percent per annum between and the fall of the Derge Ethiopian Military Junta regime in Part of this poor performance is explained by the numerous restrictive regulations imposed by the Derge regime, including price fixing, forced creation of cooperatives, and preferential treatment to cooperatives and state farms at the expense of smallholders.
Unfortunately, the performance of the sector did not improve much even after some of these egregious restrictions were lifted following the reforms of the current government.Substantial research now documents the different ways in which the wealthy and the general public view policy issues.
Significant differences between the two groups exist in such areas as tax and budget, trade and globalization, regulation of business, labor, the social safety net, and the overall role of government. As the United States rapidly becomes both a more diverse and unequal nation, policymakers face the urgent challenge of confronting growing wealth gaps by race and ethnicity.
To create a more equitable and secure future, we must shift away from public policies that fuel and exacerbate racial disparities in . Impact of Tax Administration on Government Revenue in a Developing Economy the redistribution of income and the provision of services in the form of public one among other means of revenue generation of any government to meet the need of the.
Income Generation Rigorous Evidence – Usable Results January with the strongest evidence available in a user-friendly format. The evidence provides program planners, policy makers, and of individuals or groups to generate income.” The study looked at .
Chronic absenteeism depresses achievement, particularly among low-income students. A study found that New York City Children’s Aid Society’s community schools had “far higher” attendance than peer schools, and that schools with health centers tended to have higher attendance than those without health centers (Clark et al.
). Our Latest Race and Opportunity in the United States In our most recent study, we analyze racial differences in economic opportunity using data on 20 million children and their parents.