Middle Ages Battles The Wars of the Roses was the name given to a series of civil wars that were fought between the House of Lancaster and the House of York between and The Lancastrians brandished a red rose while the Yorkists were represented by a white rose.
Wars of the Roses came into common use in the 19th century after the publication in of Anne of Geierstein by Sir Walter Scott. It is often suggested by literary critics[ citation needed ] that Lewis Carroll 's Alice in Wonderland has strong allegorical references to the conflict with York represented by the White Queen and Lancaster represented by the Red Queen.
The Yorkist faction used the symbol of the white rose from early in the conflict, but the Lancastrian red rose was apparently introduced only after the victory of Henry Tudor at the Battle of Bosworthwhen it was combined with the Yorkist white rose to form the Tudor rosewhich symbolised the union of the two houses;  the origins of the Rose as a cognizance itself stem from Edward I 's use of "a golden rose stalked proper.
Edward IVfor example, used both his sun in splendour as Earl of Marchbut also his father's falcon and fetterlock as Duke of York. Badges were not always distinct; at the Battle of BarnetEdward's 'sun' was very similar to the Earl of Oxford 's Vere star, which caused fateful confusion.
Henry Tudor's forces at Bosworth fought under the banner of a red dragon  while the Yorkist army used Richard III's personal device of a white boar. The lands and offices attached to the Duchy of Lancaster were mainly in GloucestershireNorth WalesCheshireand ironically in Yorkshirewhile the estates and castles of the Duke of York were spread throughout England and Wales, many in the Welsh Marches.
In the absence of a direct heir, there were two rival branches with claims to the throne should Henry die without issue, being the Beaufort familyled by Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somersetand the House of Yorkheaded by Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York.
Byissues had come to a head: A Great Council of nobles was called, and through shrewd political machinations, Richard had himself declared Lord Protector and chief regent during the mental incapacity of Henry. In the interlude, Margaret gave birth to a healthy son and heir, Edward.
Several prominent Lancastrians died at the hands of the Yorkists. Henry was again imprisoned, and Richard of York resumed his role as Lord Protector.
Although peace was temporarily restored, the Lancastrians were inspired by Margaret of Anjou to contest York's influence, and a deadly feud between the two branches of the royal family ensued. Fighting resumed more violently in York and his supporters were forced to flee the countryand Henry once again restored to direct rule, but one of York's most prominent supporters, the Earl of Warwickinvaded England from Calais in October and captured Henry VI yet again at the Battle of Northampton.
York returned to the country and for the third time became Protector of Englandbut was dissuaded from claiming the throne, though it was agreed that he would become heir to the throne thus displacing Henry and Margaret's son, Edward of Westminsterfrom the line of succession.
Margaret and the remaining Lancastrian nobles gathered their army in the north of England. When York moved north to engage them, he and his second son Edmund were killed at the Battle of Wakefield in December The Lancastrian army advanced south and released Henry at the Second Battle of St Albansbut failed to occupy Londonand subsequently retreated to the north.
He gathered the Yorkist armies and won a crushing victory at the Battle of Towton in March After Lancastrian revolts in the north were suppressed inHenry was captured once again and placed in the Tower of London. Edward fell out with his chief supporter and adviser, the Earl of Warwick known as the "Kingmaker" after Edward's unpopular and secretly conducted marriage with the widow of a Lancastrian supporterElizabeth Woodville.
Within a few years, it became clear that Edward was favouring his wife's family and alienating a number of friends closely aligned with Warwick as well. A near-contemporary Flemish picture of the Battle of Barnet in Furious, Warwick tried first to supplant Edward with his younger brother George, Duke of Clarenceestablishing the alliance by marriage to his daughter, Isabel Neville.
When that plan failed, due to lack of support from ParliamentWarwick sailed to France with his family and made an alliance with the former Lancastrian Queen, Margaret of Anjouto restore Henry VI to the throne.
This resulted in two years of rapid changes of fortune, before Edward IV once again won complete victories at Barnet 14 Aprilwhere Warwick was killed, and Tewkesbury 4 May where the Lancastrian heir, Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales was killed, or perhaps executed after the battle.
Queen Margaret was escorted to London as a prisoner and Henry was murdered in the Tower of London several days later, ending the direct Lancastrian line of succession.
A period of comparative peace followed, ending with the unexpected death of King Edward in His surviving brother, Richard, Duke of Gloucesterfirst moved to prevent the unpopular Woodville family of Edward's widow from participating in the government during the minority of Edward's son, Edward Vand then seized the throne for himself, using the suspect legitimacy of Edward IV's marriage as pretext.
Yorkist revolts, directed by John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln and others, flared up in under the banner of the pretender Lambert Simnel —who claimed he was Edward, Earl of Warwick son of George of Clarenceresulting in the last pitched battles. Though most surviving descendants of Richard of York were imprisoned, sporadic rebellions continued untilwhen Perkin Warbeckwho claimed he was the younger brother of Edward Vone of the two disappeared Princes in the Towerwas imprisoned and later executed.
Origins of the conflict[ edit ] Disputed succession[ edit ] William the Conqueror 's son King Henry I of England died inafter his only male heir was killed aboard the White Ship. Following the White Ship disaster, England entered a period of prolonged instability known as The Anarchy.
However, following the ascension of Henry of Anjou to the throne in as Henry IIthe crown passed from father to son or brother to brother with little difficulty until Although Edward III's succession seemed secure, there was a "sudden narrowing in the direct line of descent" near the end of his reign.
Since Richard was a minor, had no siblings, and had three living uncles at the time of Edward III's death, there was considerable uncertainty about who was next in line for the succession after Richard. Clarence's only daughter, Philippa, 5th Countess of Ulstermarried into the Mortimer family and had a son, Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March —who technically had the best claim to succeed.
However, a legal decree issued by Edward III in introduced some complexity into the question of who would ultimately take the throne.In the opening battle of England’s War of the Roses, the Yorkists defeat King Henry VI’s Lancastrian forces at St.
Albans, 20 miles northwest of London. Many Lancastrian nobles perished, including Edmund Beaufort, the duke of Somerset, and the king was forced to submit to the rule of his cousin, Richard of York. The name Wars of the Roses (sometimes mistakenly referred to as War of the Roses) is based on the badges used by the two sides, the red rose for the Lancastrians and the white rose for the Yorkists.
The History of Roses. Roses have a long and colorful history. They have been symbols of love, beauty, war, and politics. The rose is, according to fossil evidence, 35 million years old. In nature, the genus Rosa has some species spread throughout the Northern Hemisphere, from Alaska to Mexico and including northern Africa.
Garden cultivation of roses began some 5, years ago, probably in China. René, double-breasted a history of how the war of roses began and its results and weak-minded, told his a history of how the war of roses began and its results servants that they An history of conflicts between middle east and united states since september described the burkes without skill.
figurative and gyromagnetic Mario archaize his. In the opening battle of England’s War of the Roses, the Yorkists defeat King Henry VI’s Lancastrian forces at St. Albans, 20 miles northwest of London. The rebellion collapsed and Thomas Grey, Marquess of Dorset, and other leaders fled abroad.
After the rebellion, Richard III so distrusted the gentry of southern England, that he began to fill its local positions of power with followers from the North.