This colony existed temporarily during the 16th century and from to the American Revolution. Afterit remained as a British Colony. In the 17th century, on the east coast of the North America there was an English settlement known as the Massachusetts Bay Colony. It was located in New England that is situated around the current cities of Boston and Salem.
On April 19,a protest against this decision was read on behalf of 14 free cities of Germany and six Lutheran princes who declared that the majority decision did not bind them because they were not a party to it and that if forced to choose between obedience to God and obedience to Caesar they must choose obedience to God.
They appealed either to a general council of all Christendom or to a synod of the whole German nation.
Those who made this protest became known to their opponents as Protestants, and gradually the label was applied to all who adhered to the tenets of the Reformationespecially to those living outside Germany. In Germany the adherents of the Reformation preferred the name evangelicals and in France Huguenots.
The name was attached not only to the disciples of Martin Luther c. The Swiss reformers and their followers in Holland, England, and Scotlandespecially after the 17th century, preferred the name Reformed.
In the 16th century Protestant referred primarily to the two great schools of thought that arose in the Reformation, the Lutheran and the Reformed. Roman Catholics, however, used it for all who claimed to be Christian but opposed Catholicism except the Eastern churches.
They therefore included Baptists, Quakers, and Catholic-minded Anglicans under the term. Before the year this broad usage was accepted, though the word was not yet applied to Unitarians.
Throughout the 18th century the word Protestant was still defined in relation to the 16th-century Reformation. Owen Chadwick The context of the late medieval church The Protestant Reformation occurred against the background of the rich ferment of the late medieval church and society.
It has been difficult for two reasons to gain a proper understanding of the relationship between the late Middle Ages and the Reformation. One reason is the tradition of the sectarian historiography of the period. Catholic historians had an interest in showing how much reform occurred before and apart from the activities of the Protestant reformers of the 16th century.
Protestant historians, on the other hand, portrayed the late medieval church in the most negative terms to show the necessity of the Reformation, which was characterized as a movement that broke completely with a corrupt past.
The existence of reform efforts in the 15th-century church from Spain and Italy northward through Germany, France, and England has long been acknowledged. Some of these were directed against abuses by the papacythe clergyand monks and nuns. The pious, for example, abhorred Pope Innocent VIII —92who performed marriage ceremonies for his own illegitimate children in the Vatican, and Pope Alexander VI —who bribed his way to the throne of St.
Peter and had fathered eight children by three women by the time he became pope. The public was also increasingly aware of and angered by extravagant papal projects—patronage of art and architecture, wars of conquest—for which funds were exacted from the faithful.
The distaste for the papacy increased at a time of rising nationalist spirit. The popes, who had long intervened in European political affairs, faced setbacks when European monarchs acquired new power and asserted it against both the papacy and the local clergy.
During this time of rising national consciousnessa generation of theologians appeared who remained entirely within the context of medieval Roman Catholicism but who engaged in fundamental criticisms of it. Thus William of Ockham died ? Ockham saw the papacy and empire as independent but related realms.
He believed that when the church was in danger of heresylay people—princes and commoners alike—must come to its rescue. Wycliffe encouraged reform of the church and its teachings and granted uncommon spiritual authority to the king.
His primary source of inspiration for reform was the Bible.
Wycliffe gave impetus to its translation, and in he helped make it available to rulers and ruled alike. In BohemiaJan Huswho became rector of the University of Pragueused that school as his base to criticize lax clergy and the recent prohibition of offering the cup of wine to communicants.
He also exploited nationalist feelings and argued that the pope had no right to use the temporal sword. Alongside a piety that combined moral revulsion with nationalismChristian humanism was a further sign of unrest in the late medieval church.
In Italy Lorenzo Valla —57 used philology and historical inquiry to expose a number of forgeries, including the Donation of Constantinewhich purportedly granted control over the Western Roman Empire to the pope. In Germany Johannes Reuchlin — studied Greek and Hebrew, the biblical languages, and was involved in an international controversy that pitted intellectual freedom against ecclesiastical authority.
Because of his philosophy of Christ, which stressed a focus on the Bible and rejected much medieval superstition, Erasmus, a lifelong Catholic, was accused of laying the egg that hatched Luther.(A)Compare and contrast the colonies of Virginia and Massachusetts Bay in the 17th century.
|The context of the late medieval church||Pilgrim Fathers The village of ScroobyEngland circahome to the "Saints" until Plymouth Colony was founded by a group of English Puritans who later came to be known as the Pilgrims. They began to feel the pressures of religious persecution while still in the English village of Scroobynear East RetfordNottinghamshire.|
|Expert Answers||Tens of thousands of Native-Americans lived in Massachusetts prior to colonization and the area was frequented throughout the 16th and 17th century by European traders and fisherman.|
|Virginia | Capital, Map, History, & Facts | grupobittia.com||Originally published as 10 Vt.|
Who were the colonists? Why did they come? How successful were they? (B)Explain the economic, social, and psychological factors that caused Europeans and Americans to enslave Africans. The 17th century was a time of immense change in the history of Massachusetts.. Tens of thousands of Native-Americans lived in Massachusetts prior to colonization and the area was frequented throughout the 16th and 17th century by European traders and fisherman.
ClassZone Book Finder. Follow these simple steps to find online resources for your book. Discovery, Exploration, Colonies, & Revolution. Updated July 3, JUMP TO.. TIMELINES & MAPS / PRIMARY DOCUMENTS. DISCOVERY & EXPLORATION. NATIVE AMERICANS & COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE. The economies were different.
While Virginia was strictly agricultural, Massachusetts had a mix of economies including shipbuilding, farming and shipping. While church attendance was mandatory in. In the 17th century, on the east coast of the North America there was an English settlement known as the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
It was located in New England that is situated around the current cities of Boston and Salem.